Is it possible to mine bitcoin by implementing Grover’s algorithm on a quantum computer

Settembre 28, 2022 By Paolo Micciulla 0

quantum encryption

An explanation of the threat posed to Bitcoin by future advancements in quantum computing and the solutions that can keep Bitcoin secure even after those advancements take place. At the beginning of 2022, a total of 3,539,375 bitcoins worth over $140 billion sat in accounts that had been inactive for at least eight years. Many of these accounts were created by people who are either deceased or lost their private keys. The financial effect of nearly 17 percent of Bitcoin’s total supply suddenly hitting the market could be significant.

But that doesn’t address another critical issue faced by quantum computers. “The algorithmic speed-up is unlikely to make up for the considerably slower clock cycle times relative to state of the art classical computing for the foreseeable future,” according to the paper. The proof-of-work consensus mechanism refers to the special system certain blockchains employ to select honest participants to perform the important role of proposing new blocks of transaction data to be added to the blockchain. Because there is no single authority governing a blockchain, it must rely on an automated system coded into the protocol to filter out dishonest users who might attempt to corrupt the blockchain with invalid transactions.

How long would it take to crack Bitcoin?

Quantum computers would need to become about a million times larger than they are today in order to break the algorithm that secures bitcoin, which would put the cryptocurrency at risk from hackers. Additionally, Bitcoin mining difficulty recently jumped to an all-time high following the release of the 19th million Bitcoin into circulation. The fear around quantum computing arises from the fact that an entity that hypothetically controls more than half of the mining network using quantum computers could use that control for any number of nefarious purposes. On the other hand, Professor Sarma of the University of Maryland suggests that the concept of quantum computing is currently more hype than substance due to the small matter of quantum error correction.


We can finance or refinance our home with a fixed 30-year loan at the lowest possible rate. We’ll be paying back the loan over time with inflated dollars , and we can invest the money that we didn’t put into the house to make higher returns. Real assets, like property, are always a good store of value in inflationary times. I foresee a multiyear window where people could “return” their bills in exchange for digital dollars. And with the ability to lease time on a quantum computer, these kinds of resources are actually widely available today.

Scientists estimate that quantum computers may become powerful enough to crack the Bitcoin encryption in a decade

Specifically, a well-known theoretical computer algorithm called the Shor function, when implemented by a quantum computer, can, in theory, solve for the prime factors that are currently concealed by elliptic-curve multiplication. This is a form of multiplication used for hashing that is nearly impossible to reverse (i.e. discover the original numbers that were multiplied together to form the private key). To answer this question, we must look at the health of the Bitcoin network today. As previously mentioned, executing a 51 percent attack on the Bitcoin network is a reasonably expensive task today, and it will only become increasingly expensive with BTC’s rising adoption and usage. Further, Bitcoin is the most decentralized blockchain by far, making it all the more difficult for any nefarious elements to execute an attack.


In our case, there can be many such s, and therefore we do not know exactly how many times to apply the inversion so as not to start working to harm. Grover’s algorithm increases the amplitude only when applied a certain number of times, then the reverse effect begins. This can be compared with the rotation of a vector – you rotate it each time by a certain amount and as soon as it passes the angle we need, the vector is already starting to move away from the correct solution. The third problem of applying the Grover algorithm to the mining problem is the possible existence of a set of solutions. But this advantage will go away immediately after the first application of the inversion relative to the average – we make the same transformations over all states simultaneously, and so the zero amplitudes are also inverted and will be nonzero.

The government wouldn’t want bills and coins to be used for any transaction. In time, our smartphones will take a back seat to our augmented reality eyewear powered by artificial intelligence and coupled with some form of wearable technology to enhance our ability to interact. In our case, after evaluating the value of hash, the nonce register becomes entangled with the hash register, which in turn is confused with the service register. All these connections must be broken each time before applying the inversion relative to the mean. We know the exact number of iterations of the Grover algorithm for the maximum amplitude increase, but this number is calculated from the assumption that our solution is unique.

How much Bitcoin can one computer mine in a day?

There are currently 6.25 bitcoins produced in each block, and a block is produced every 10 minutes. This means that there are 6.25 (Bitcoins per block) x 6 (blocks per hour) x 24 (hours per day) = 900 bitcoins produced each day. How many of these you get depends on the percentage of hash power you control.

Impressive as this is, the improvement in conventional computer power is limited by Moore’s Law – predicting the number of transistors on microchips will double every two years. In an adversarial world protecting information is critical to security, which is why governments invest heavily in information intelligence. Historians believe that the outcome of World War II was influenced by the British cracking the Nazi’s machine for encrypted communication called ‘Enigma’.

IBM is confident that it can exponentially increase the qubit number in the next few years, and we could see a processor with millions of qubits in at most 5 years, but reaching billions of qubits may take double that time. There is no immediate threat for the Bitcoin network, yet core developers should consider upgrading the encryption code to make it quantum-resistant by the end of this decade. The most efficient theoretical implementation of a quantum computer to detect a SHA-256 collision is actually less efficient than the theorized classical implementation for breaking the standard. The wallet file in the original Bitcoin client is using SHA-512 (a more secure version than SHA-256) to help encrypt private keys.

Also, there has been a significant activity in the startup scene, where companies like Quantum Circuits are expecting to achieve crucial breakthroughs in the coming days. How this upgrade would be introduced is subject to debate, but one method would be through a soft fork upgrade. This results in the creation of a new address type which users would send their bitcoins to in order to achieve quantum security. Users who don’t send their coins to the new, quantum-resistant wallet type would leave their funds vulnerable to theft. The Hyperledger Foundation, the technology BNB behind the QUANT token, is working on post-quantum cryptography as part of its Ursa project, a library of cryptography software available for Hyperledger projects. Eventually, currently used encryption schemes must be replaced by new ones that are quantum-resistant.

Checking if the site connection is secure

‘Quantum Supremacy’ makes challenges that because of time constraints are simply unfeasible for existing chip-based computers suddenly within reach. But even when applying randomness, standard computer processing power can crack an eight-letter password in lower case and containing no special characters in 8.5hrs, while a Super Computer making 1 billion guesses a second can do that instantly. AES has never been hacked, but its predecessor DES, introduced in 1976, used 56bit keys which can now be broken within a few hours. The limitation with symmetric algorithms is how to deliver the single key, with the most analogue solution being a suitcase handcuffed to a secret service agent. In bitcoin-mining it will not be pre-image, thus will be even trickier because block data always changes.

3 Million Bitcoin in 2 Seconds: Google Quantum Computer – Bitcoinist

3 Million Bitcoin in 2 Seconds: Google Quantum Computer.

Posted: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 07:00:00 GMT [source]

And before we turn to tohow fast could a quantum computer mine bitcoin’s mailbag, I’d like to share one more reminder with readers that a replay of my special event this past Wednesday evening is available for just a short time. According to IBM specialists, one gate per quantum computer requires about 1 nanosecond. Given the parallel operation on a quantum computer, we get almost identical speed. The solution of the third problem is the selection of the complexity of the network. The transition to an alternative solution is to search only for the value of nonce, without hash. A quantum computer has to perform better at some minute and trivial task that might seem impressive but completely useless — in much the same way a Turing test of machine-generated English might fool a Ukrainian child with no fluency in the language.

Breaking this form of encryption would mean a person could ascertain someone’s private key from that person’s public key, which is freely broadcasted to the entire network each time that wallet makes a transaction. Accessing a private key is like identifying a person’s password and would give the attacker complete control over any funds held in the wallet address. One of the most obvious ways to maintain Bitcoin’s security in a future with more powerful quantum computers would be to upgrade the Bitcoin network to a stronger form of encryption — often called “quantum-resistant encryption”. Some alternative quantum-resistant encryption algorithms already exist, and the main selection criteria for developers would be to use one which is efficient and wouldn’t be memory intensive. Estimates on when quantum computers could achieve the necessary qubit processing power to attack Bitcoin range from several years to a few decades.

As CoinTelegraph discusses, quantum computers could break through the SHA-256 hashing algorithm that Bitcoin and many other blockchains rely on for producing blocks and signing transactions. If this happened, then a quantum computer could forge transaction signatures, recover private keys from public keys, change data in the blockchain’s history, outpace all the miners/validators in the network and completely hijack the blockchain. Since BNB the Decentralized Finance sector holds many billions of dollars in value , there is a tremendous economic gain for anyone who can crack the blockchain’s cryptography. Quantum computing’s impact on cryptography will also likely spread to the cryptocurrency industry. Every crypto project today uses cryptography to secure its network and validate block transactions, generate a hash number, verify transaction completion, and so on. However, with efficient quantum computers in place, many crypto projects could pose an existential threat if they do not continually advance their security mechanisms in tandem.

How fast can a quantum computer crack a password?

One study suggests that encryption using a 2048-bit key could be cracked in 8 hours using a quantum computer.